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Glossary

active service: taking part in a war, often on or near the battlefield

Allied soldiers: soldiers from one of the Allied nations (the British Empire, the Russian Empire, and France were the main Allied nations fighting against Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and Austria-Hungary)

ANZAC: the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

armistice: a truce

artillery: very big guns that needed several men to fire

British Empire: all of the territories under the control or leadership of Britain

casualties: soldiers who are dead, wounded, sick, captured, or missing

casualty clearing stations: places very close to the front line where soldiers received medical treatment

civilians: people who aren’t soldiers or part of an army

combat: fighting conscription: when the government orders people to be soldiers

contingent: a group of soldiers

division: a very large group of soldiers (usually many thousands)

dysentery: a serious infection that causes severe diarrhoea

infantry: soldiers trained to fight the enemy on foot and up close

limbie: a term used by nurses to describe a patient waiting for an artificial limb

mustard gas: a poisonous gas used in battles during the First World War

New Zealand Expeditionary Force: the main part of the New Zealand army in the First World War

occupy: when an army takes control of a place

offensive: an attack or series of attacks

pandemic: an outbreak of a disease that spreads across a huge area

shrapnel: small pieces of metal thrown out when a shell explodes

Western Front: one of the main lines of fighting in the First World War (there was also an Eastern Front), the Western Front stretched around 700 kilometres across northern and eastern France and Belgium (see the map on page 37)